In the conditions of the coronavirus pandemic, unprecedented changes are taking place in all aspects of human life. These sets also led to the “crack” of many years of formed values, traditions and principles. In particular, the forecast indicators given by influential scientists, experts of international organizations on the risks that threaten the development of the kurrai land in the near and medium term have not been confirmed. On the contrary, they are being reviewed again. But this is evident: it is not for nothing that a person becomes a victim of an extremely dangerous situation, unless the world acts as a whole. And the only way to salvation is to direct the accumulated knowledge, formed skills and gained conclusions towards a single goal, to be able to effectively harmonize knowledge and experiences.
And the formation of knowledge and science goes directly to the educational system. The effectiveness of the educational system is directly provided by the level of teachers, the need for students, the content of educational literature and the infrastructure aimed at the formation of Independent Education. This means that the training of advanced personnel, increasing their competitiveness in accordance with the requirements of the labor market, the cultivation of creative-thinking specialists are closely connected with the process of training established in the training camps.
On October 8, 2019, the head of our state signed the decree “on approval of the concept of development of the higher education system of the Republic of Uzbekistan until 2030”. This important guideline document defines “the inclusion of at least 10 higher education institutions in the Republic in the list of internationally recognized institutions of Higher Education (Quacquarelli Symonds World University Rankings, Times Niger Education or Academic Ranking of World Universities) and the gradual transfer of the educational process in higher education institutions into the credit-module system”.
In addition, up to 2030, 85 percent of all higher education institutions of the Republic, including the 2020/2021 academic year, 33 higher education institutions were transferred to the credit-module system.
So what is the purpose of this? To what extent does the present benefit for today and for the future? To what extent does it fit the strategic goals of the new Uzbekistan?
below we will try to look for detailed answers to these questions.
What is it?
Credit-module system, this is the process of organizing education, is a model of assessment based on the aggregate of module technologies of teaching and credit measurement. Conducting it as a whole is a multifaceted and complex systemic process. In the principle of credit-module, two main issues are given importance: ensuring independent performance of students; assessment of student knowledge on the basis of rating.
The following are recognized as the main functions of the credit-module system:
— Organization of educational processes on the basis of modules;
— single science, course (credit)assessment;
— assessment of students ‘ knowledge on the basis of rating score;
— to create the opportunity for students to draw up their study plans in an individual way;
— increase the share of Independent Education in the educational process;
— the convenience of educational programs and the possibility of change due to the demand for a specialist in the labor market.
The above-mentioned lessons are an indicator not only to conduct training on the basis of innovative educational technologies, but also to study independently from the student, to be in a new attitude to education, to acquire the necessary and deep theoretical knowledge, to teach the formation of practical skills, based on the demand of the labor market. In short, this system is aimed at the professional development and perfection of the student. It is aimed at ensuring that the owner of knowledge receives knowledge throughout his / her life, as well as the formation of human capital capable of meeting the labor market and modern requirements.
Let’s briefly touch on the essence of the concepts of modules and credit in this regard.
Module-this is part of the curriculum, in which several subjects and courses are studied. It is a set of several disciplines (courses) aimed at creating a certain knowledge and skills in students, having the potential to conduct analytical and logical observation. Bunda teacher organizes the educational process, conducts live, video and audio lectures, coordinates and controls the student’s activities. And the student independently studies the subject and performs the given assignments.
According to foreign experience, the educational process in the credit-module system will consist of 2-4 modules each semester. The subjects concentrated in the module are easily formulated according to the principle of mutually complementary filling from theoretical-methodical disciplines to practical disciplines and from a logical point of view. For the formation of a student as a specialist, it is required not only to have knowledge, but also to have the skills to process them, introduce them into practice.
Module-based training programs are developed according to a special scheme and include the following:
— full disclosure of educational goals and objectives;
— requirements for the qualification of the student, which must start and increase after the completion of the course;
— brief content of each subject included in the module (sillabus), that is, the topics of lectures, the plan of seminars and practical classes, assignments designed to evaluate Independent Education;
— a brief description of the teaching: the method and means of teaching; consists of methods and forms of assessment of knowledge.
On the basis of the module, a rating system is used to assess the knowledge, qualifications and skills of students in the teaching system. In it, all the educational activities of the student, that is, the knowledge he / she has acquired, acquired outside the audience and the audience, are evaluated by scoring.
Credit (credit) is a unit of measurement of the educational burden (time) spent on the student to study and master the subjects in a particular direction or program of education (course). Credit is a minimum measure of time that is established by the student’s normative act, usually allocated for a week in the auditorium and for Independent Education. The credit to the student is given after the successful passing of the final exam, fulfilling the assignments established in a certain subject.
Each student must accumulate credits in order to have a diploma in the direction and specialty chosen in the future. The accumulated credit will continue to serve the student for a lifetime to improve his skills or to receive additional higher education. Speaking in economic language, the accumulated credit becomes the academic “asset”of the student.
Credit technology gives education recipients the right to choose the subjects of choice included in the working curriculum, through which they directly participate in the formation of an individual training plan. To them, not only subjects, but also professors and teachers are given the choice erkinligi. It is considered positive that students are given the opportunity to choose subjects. This is also considered as an indicator of the specific value of the evaluation of training processes.
History and reason
The loan was first introduced in the marotaba XVIII and XIX centuries in the US universities with the aim of liberalizing educational processes, determining the weekly academic load of the student.
In 1869, Charles William Eliot, president of Harvard University, a prominent figure in American education, introduced the concept of “credit hours” into consumption. Thus, in 1870 — 1880-ies, a system of measures with credit hours will be introduced. The study and development of educational programs with the credit system created an opportunity for students to independently plan the educational process, control its quality, improve educational technologies.
The introduction of Credit Collection measure not only gave the student greater freedom, but also provided the opportunity to independently plan the academic process so that he could grow to be a competitive specialist of his chosen field in the future. At the same time, it also led to improvements in the evaluation system and educational technology.
As provided for in the Bologna declaration, the credit-module system basically serves to perform two functions, with emphasis on Independent Education.:
the first is to ensure the mobility of students and teachers, that is, the free passage (transfer of study or work) from one higher educational institution to another without obstacles;
the second is that for all educational and scientific activities in the direction or specialty chosen by the student, the academic load — credit is accurately calculated. The sum of the credit shows how much the student has mastered according to the chosen program.
Bologna declaration: countdown
Today, we hear different opinions about the Bologna system, its importance by those who are affected by the educational system.
So what kind of system is this? What are its advantages and disadvantages?
As a logical continuation of the subject, we will continue our thoughts.
To create this system, from the 70-ies of the last century, efforts have been initiated to ensure the integration of all higher education institutions in Europe, to create a single standard of higher education, to establish the mobility of students and teachers, to recognize diplomas, to solve a number of problems related to the unification of the scores on the knowledge, qualifications and skills
As a result of these actions, the Bologna declaration is signed by representatives of 29 countries in Bologna, Italy, in 1999.
To date, 48 countries are involved in the Bologna Process. Among them are Russia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan and the Republic of Belarus from the CIS countries.
Training of highly qualified personnel on the Bologna system is carried out in two stages. Preparation of bakalavrs usually not less than three years, as well as 1-2 years of Master’s degree.
Many experts admit that the adoption of the Bologna declaration is the main reason for the restriction of the opportunities of European Higher Education Institutions in competition with the United States in terms of the acquisition of potential, highly qualified students, the appreciation of their knowledge in the labor market, the measures taken against the tendency of many “holders of reason”to leave the
Why does the ministry give priority to the European School?
Today, four models for the implementation of this credit measurement system in practice are widely used.
These are the credit system of the United States of America (USCS); the credit system of the European countries (ECTS); the credit system of the Asian — Pacific countries (UCTS); the credit system of Great Britain (CATS).
The most common among these models are the US and European models.
According to the information, the Ministry of Higher and secondary special education of our country pays priority to the use of the European ECTS system in the implementation of the credit system. Therefore, we believe that it is worthwhile to dwell on both its advantages, advantages and disadvantages.
One of the most important aspects of the Bologna declaration is the use of a single “credit system”of higher education institutions (ECTS). Credit or credit unit is an indicator of the value of any educational activity that is taken into account in the curriculum.
The ECTS system offers great advantages to students from the participating countries of Europe and the Bologna Process in general.
For example, the academic knowledge gained by the University in which the student is studying guarantees recognition in the higher educational institutions of the countries that are members of this system, that is, its specific “conization”. At the same time, it gives the members of this system the opportunity to restore, move and finish their other OT studies.
The ECTS system also offers a number of facilities to universities. Indeed, it provides similarity and uniqueness of educational plans, which clearly reflect the information about the educational process in a certain direction of education and in the cross-section of specialties. It will also enable the student to pre-agree on the content of the programs in the receiving and sending universities in order to achieve recognition of the level of specialization. The responsibility and independence of the student in solving all the issue related to his education is maintained. In the European education system, training courses and the entire educational process are calculated on credit, and in Uzbekistan and other CIS countries on academic hours.
According to the ECTS system, each higher education institution independently determines the composition of the loan, the number of loans in each module, as well as the total amount of loans that must be collected by the student to complete each course and the period of study in general.
In contrast to the current teaching procedure, in addition to compulsory subjects in the credit system, elective subjects are also included in the student’s individual syllabus. Students are not expelled from study or postponed from course to course. which science (course)can not collect the specified credits, but only re-examination of the same science itself, except. And the Diploma of higher education is issued after the payment of the specified credits.
According to the ECTS system, the amount of credit that students must collect in a year is 60. If we assume that one academic year will consist of two semesters, the student must collect 30 credits each semester. If the baccalaureate program is 3-4 years old, a total of 180 — 240 credits is required for the student to obtain the baccalaureate degree, while for the completion of the 1-2 — year master’s program, it is compulsory to collect 60-120 credits.
What was the situation in Uzbekistan?
It is known that at us the source of information and access to various international databases, their use was limited to a certain extent. As a result, the main attention of professors and teachers in higher education was paid to the search for information, its mastering and dissemination to students after the initial processing. That is, teachers were simply the receiver and transmitter of information.
Bunda served as the recipient of information as an obyekt of the student’s learning process, the main time of which was spent listening to lectures in the auditorium. To date, the issue of the development of Independent Education of students has risen to the agenda due to the acceleration of enjoying the world of information, the possibility of using international scientific and technical databases, the speed of global processes.
The curriculum of Educational Directions and specialties was complemented by subjects not related to labor market demand, mainly from the point of view of the principle of providing the professor-teacher with work, issuing him the audience clock, as well as forming subjects on the basis of taqsimlash by mutual agreement of the head of staff.
It was not possible for the student to choose the subjects and professors and teachers, to give up boring classes and to study in the library. The student’s abandonment of the lessons was considered as a serious waste, and in one semester more than 30 hours of warning, if more than 74 hours, they would go from student to discharge. Whether the student liked this science and the teacher, whether the knowledge he was given was left with almis, was obliged to sit in the auditorium!
Well, in the traditional system, no materials were provided on what kind of knowledge the student will acquire in the future, how many professors and teachers will teach, the profile of the direction, the brief content of the subjects.
However, all the information on the direction of education and specialties of developed foreign countries in the University, in particular, a brief summary of the subjects reflected in the curriculum (identification of the subject, information about the professor-teacher, description of the lesson, the purpose of the science, the results of the study, the methodology of teaching, the plans of the science, literature, , information on the availability of skills and professional qualifications will be published clearly on the official website of universities. At the moment, a thousand, unfortunately, applicants find it difficult to find this information on the sites of our universities. While it is time to formulate a culture in this regard has already come.
ECTS requirements: initial steps
As noted above, the first steps are being taken to abandon the negative aspects of the traditional teaching system and to organize work within the framework of the requirements of international standards. At present, work on the transition to the credit-module system in 33 higher educational institutions of our country is carried out intensively. All forces are mobilizing to create this system.
An example of this is the fact that the El-yurt umidi Foundation regularly organizes seminars by compatriots engaged in scientific research and pedagogical activity in foreign higher education institutions, who know exactly the credit-module system closely. in addition, 10 higher education institutions have been integrated into self-financing as expert advisors from one of the members of the International Expert Council under the foundation “El-yurt hope”.
In order to carry out these processes in full, relevant departments are also established in the higher educational institution.
In particular, the Department of management of the credit system of Education is functioning at Tashkent State University of Economics. Work on the implementation of full transformation of all educational directions and specialties from the 2020/2021 academic year into the ECTS credit-module system has been started by this department.
Have the transformation processes started?
According to preliminary calculations, in The Bachelor’s degree at the University, 15 weeks of study in one semester and 6 weeks for attestation (in one semester 3 weeks are allocated for examinations) are allocated. In this way, the number of study weeks in 4 years is more than 144, the attestation is 24 weeks, and the total number of 204 weeks with total vacations. All directions of education and specialties are reflected in the curriculum at each stage in two parts, that is, in the main and elective subjects. Based on the ECTS requirement, it is planned to upload to the student the obligation to collect a total of 60 credits in 4 years out of 240 credits each year. Then the student will have to spend 2880 hours, 4320 hours for Independent Education, 7200 hours for participation in lectures, practical and laboratory classes and examination processes for 4 years.
In our example, 1 credit = 12 academic hours + 18 hours is an independent education. Therefore, 1 credit is considered equal to 30 hours, and the student’s weekly audience load is equal to 20 hours. The amount of credit allocated for qualification practice is envisaged to be credited to the account of the relevant science or subjects.
What changes will happen if the new system is switched on?
The introduction of this system into higher education creates the basis for increasing the quality of education, ensuring transparency, eradicating corruption, revealing the true knowledge of the educational recipient, and the independent study and work of the student on its own. To date, the European credit system has been introduced into practice in almost all higher educational institutions of the dilapidated continent.
The introduction of credit module system is an important factor in the collaborative performance of the teacher and student. In modular education, the educator organizes, manages, advises, examines the process of mastering the listener. And the student moves independently towards the oriented subject. The greatest emphasis will also be on the Independent Education of students.
In the educational process, the importance of independent education increases, which in the future leads to an increase in the independence, creative initiative and activity of specialists. In the credit-module system, university students will always be able to get help and advice from teachers and fellow students. This strengthens mutual solidarity and serves to shape the skills of working in a team.
The transition to the credit-module teaching system increases both the obligation and demand for the professors and teachers of the higher educational institution. As already mentioned above, with a modular training system, the teacher performs not only the functions of providing and controlling information, but also the functions of a consultant and a coordinator. The leading role of the teacher in the pedagogical process is maintained.
Another sentence. The credit system of education increases the exchange of students. Because the loans received in one university are taken into account in the other and students can move from one university to another without losing credit. This system provides an opportunity for students of Uzbekistan to continue their studies in advanced foreign universities and to remove complex bureaucratic obstacles.
But it should also be noted that it is important not to forget that direct implementation of any international experience blindly, without taking into account our own values, can not be carried out without a deep analysis of each of its elements, relying on scientific grounds, in the future there will be certain negative phenomena.
That is, it does not mean that this system fully corresponds to our worldview, conditions, values aimed at bringing a harmonious person to adulthood. Therefore, it is necessary for us to change the views of both the professor-teacher and the student, which are considered active elements of the educational process, to integrate the requirements of this system into them, to form a specific culture.
After all, we must feel that it is inevitable for us to lose our place, position in the competition, unless we prepare personnel in accordance with the demand of the labor market. But before us there is neither a better way nor a choice. Speaking about why, higher education institutions of all developed countries are walking this path and achieving high results.
Since our traditional higher education system is not recognized in the world, we are obliged to apply advanced standards and systems to higher education institutions. Therefore, the pursuit of innovation, the continuation of the actions that have begun to radically reform the higher education system, is the right decision in all respects.
At the end of our speech, it is appropriate to recall the following Misr, which was noted by Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur, the zabardist representative of Uzbek classical literature, that science should not be built on its own, that a person should possess it only with great enthusiasm and strong enthusiasm:
Who needs the Taliban knowledge of yor anga knowledge,
The learned knowledge needs the Taliban knowledge.
I do talibi Ilmu talibi ilme,
I need knowledge from the Taliban to the knowledge I have.
Sherzod MUSTAFAqULOV, director of the International Educational, Scientific and Innovative Research Center “University 3.0”, I.the f.d., associate professor,
Mansur Sultanov, head of Credit System Management Department of TDIU Education, PhD